Atomic Level Manipulation and Imaging Program

Collaborating Researchers

Program Manager:

Dr Chris Pakes




Our aim is the study of charge and spin-related effects that may influence the development of solid-state quantum computer architectures.

- To make use of scanning probes to explore oxide electrostatics on the nanoscale, and at the single charge-trap level.

- To develop techniques for the fabrication of a nanoscale Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID), sufficiently sensitive for single-spin measurement.

- To study isolated nanoscale magnetic particles, which may have application in developing spin-based quantum computer technology.


Research Topics:

Mesoscopic superconductivity:

Atomic scale superconducting electronics.

Fabrication of a nanoscale Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID), sufficiently sensitive for single-spin measurement.

Nanoscale oxide electrostatics:

Investigation of quasi-breakdown fluctuations and charge noise in SiO2 on the   nanoscale, and at the single charge-trap level.

Catastrophic oxide breakdown induced by hot electron injection.

Scanning Kelvin Microscopy (SKM) imaging of sub-surface dopants and charge centres induced by ion implantation.

Protein spintronics:

Study of isolated nanoscale magnetic particles, which may have application in developing spin-based quantum computer technology.

Imaging and manipulation of isolated surface-trapped ferritin.

Electrical and magnetic properties of isolated ferritin particles.

Polymer nanoscience:

Development of surface-resist technology to allow the registration of single implanted ions.

Atomic-scale properties of ion-modified polymers.

Electronic and magnetic properties of ion-modified polymers.

Atomic scale charge measurement.

Measurement of charge in surfaces and mesoscopic systems.

Single atom electronic devices.

Underpinning scanning-probe microscopy and nanofabrication:

Carbon nanotube AFM imaging of high aspect ratio structures relevant to the fabrication of a Kane device.

Nanofabrication by AFM-induced local anodic oxidation.

Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD):

Modelling Si quantum architecture fabrication and operation processes.

Modelling SKM-based charge measurement.





Recent Publications:

J.Y. Sze, C.I. Pakes, B.K. Tay, D.N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Conducting Ni nanoparticles in an ion-modified polymer”, submitted to Appl.Phys.Lett. (2005).

M.D.H. Lay, C.I. Pakes and J.C. McCallum, “Kelvin-probe Force Microscopy defect study of ion-implanted thermal oxide thin films on Silicon”, submitted to IEEE Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices, Brisbane, Australia.

V. Millar, C.I. Pakes, S. Prawer, B. Rout, and D.N. Jamieson “Thin-film resists for registration of single ion impacts”, Nanotechnology, in press (2005).

C.I. Pakes, S. Ramelow, S. Prawer and D.N. Jamieson, “Nanoscale electrical characterisation of trap-assisted quasi-breakdown fluctuations in SiO2”, Appl.Phys.Lett., 84, 3142 (2004).

C.I. Pakes, D.P. George, S. Ramelow, A. Cimmino, D.N. Jamieson, S. Prawer, “Manipulation of single magnetic protein particles using atomic force microscopy”, J.Mag.Magn.Mat., 272-276s, E1232 (2004).

C.I. Pakes, D.P. George, C.J. Yang, D.N. Jamieson, A.S. Dzurak, R.G. Clark, “Technology computer-aided design Modelling of Single-atom Doping for Fabrication of Buried Nanostructures”, Nanotechnology, 14, 157 (2003).

C.I. Pakes, V. Conrad, J.C. Ang, F. Green, A.S. Dzurak, L.C.L. Hollenberg, D.N. Jamieson and R.G. Clark, “Modelling Single-electron-transistor-based Readout in the Kane Solid-State Quantum Computer”, Nanotechnology, 14, 161 (2003).

C.I. Pakes, C.J. Wellard, D.N. Jamieson, L.C.L. Hollenberg, S. Prawer, A.S. Dzurak, A.R. Hamilton and R.G. Clark, “Modelling of electrostatic gate operations in the Kane solid state quantum computer”, Microelectronics Journal, 33, 1053 (2002).

V. Millar, C.I. Pakes, A. Cimmino, D. Brett, D.N. Jamieson, S. Prawer, A.S. Dzurak, R.P. McKinnon and R.G. Clark, “Nanoscale fabrication using single-ion impacts”, Smart Materials and Structures, 11, 686 (2002).

C.I. Pakes, D.N. Jamieson, S. Prawer, P.W. Josephs-Franks and R.P. Reed, “DC SQUID devices for NMR in phosphorous-implanted silicon”, Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Experimental Implementation of Quantum Computation, R.G. Clark, Ed., Rinton Press (Princeton, USA), 331 (2002). ISBN: 1-58949-013-4.

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Recent Presentations

Looking for Single Ion Impacts in PMMA

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Scanning Probe Microscopes:

Jeol 4500 UHV AFM/STM Scanning Probe System

Jeol 4200 Scanning Probe Microscope

SMENA Scanning Probe Microscope


Crossed-beam Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and

Scanning electron microscope (SEM)

Surface deposition and analysis:

UHV Auger, XPS, SEM and SAM

UHV dual-source electron-beam evaporator

UHV Hydrogen cracker

Electrical Characterisation:

4K low noise STAR Cryoelectronics measurement system


ISE Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD)

Computer System


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Research Students


Matt Lay (PhD): Scanning Kelvin microscopy of 31P-implantation induced charge traps (PhD)

Victoria Millar (MSc 2003) : Development and application of single-ion resists (MSc)


Michael Popper (2003): FIB-based fabrication of a Nb SQUID


Giuseppe Tettamanzi: Atomic scale superconducting electronics

Jia Yin Sze (NTU): Conductivity in ion-modified polymers

Sven Ramelow (2003): Nanoscale study of oxide electrostatics


Amy Dowler (2004): UV laser annealing of magnetic proteins

Warren Volk-Makarewicz (2004): Scanning Kelvin microscopy of buried dopants

Damien George (2003): Manipulation of surface-trapped magnetic protein particles

Fern Ho (2003): Nb lithography using probe-induced anodic oxidation



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Collaborating University of Melbourne Staff

Dr Alberto Cimmino

Prof Steven Prawer

Assoc Prof David Jamieson

Dr Jeff McCallum

Dr Sergey Rubinov


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Collaborating Researchers

Prof Robert Clark, A/Prof Andrew Dzurak, Prof Michelle Simmons A/Prof Alex Hamilton (UNSW, Australia)

Dr Marilyn Hawley (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA)

Dr John Gallop and Dr Patrick Joseph-Franks (NPL, UK)

A/Prof Beng Kang Tay and A/Prof Daniel Lau (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)

Nicole Gorham (University of Western Australia)


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Undergraduate lectures:

640-161 Physics: Principles and applications

Honours lectures:

Condensed Matter Physics

Lectures for schools:

Superconductor: magnetic powers


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Created: 21 Feb 2003
Last modified: 03 June 2004
Authorised by: Prof. David Jamieson
Maintained by: MARC office Admin. , Physics Department