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Last modified: November 2015
Authorised by: C.T. Chantler
Maintained by: C. T. Chantler
chantler@unimelb.edu.au
The University of Melbourne  

[School of Physics - Optics Group]


Christopher T. Chantler, Professor, FAIP


© The University of Melbourne 1994-2015. Disclaimer and Copyright Information.

Topics for higher degree students

Who am I?

Professor in Physics at The University of Melbourne.
Fellow of the Australian Institute of Physics.
Editor-in-Chief, Radiation Physics and Chemistry.
Chair, International IUCr Commission on XAFS.
Editor, International Tables for Crystallography Volume I: XAS.
President International Radiation Physics Society.

As at October 2015, I have published some 165 [Update] refereed scholarly papers/book chapters, plus an additional 293 conference presentations including some 56 invited orals and 43 selected orals.
Google Scholar link http://scholar.google.com.au/citations?user=Z4o4cGAAAAAJ
Total Citations 2745 [Update]. h-index = 26 [ISI Cite Search, Google Scholar] [Update]
For my fields and physics in general, more useful measures are publications per author or citations per author.
Estimates from Google Scholar and ISI Cited reference search October 2015 [Update] are 73 publications per author and 1320 citations per author

School of Physics (Room 713)
Cnr Elgin St / Swanston St [Building 192]
University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, AUSTRALIA
Phone: +61 (0)3 8344 5437 (Office, Room 713, 7th floor)	

Fax:   +61 (0)3 9347 4783
URL:     http://optics.ph.unimelb.edu.au/~chantler

Other Current Membership / Positions:

Member, American Chemical Society, 2010- Member, American Physical Society, 2007-
Member, Optical Society of America 1993-; American Institute of Physics 1993-; Australian Optical Society 1994-
Institute of Physics (UK), 2004-
Society of Crystallographers in Australia and New Zealand, 1999-; International Radiation Physics Society, 1999-
International X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Society, 2006-; Australian X-ray Analytical Association, 2006-
Associate Editor, Australian Optical Society News 1995- Web-site coordinator, AOS, http://www.physics.mq.edu.au/~aos/ , 2000- Councillor & Director, Australian Optical Society (AOS) 1996-2007
International Scientific Advisory Committee, XVUV, 2008-; X-ray and Inner Shell Processes, 2005-2008

Hollywood Senior High School, Perth, Western Australia 1975 - 1979
BSc (Hons 1) University of Western Australia, 1980 - 1984.
D. Phil. Exeter College, Oxford University 1985 - 1990.

Prizes:
International JARI Enterprise Award by IRPS - for Outstanding work in the radiation sciences, the nature of the research being recognised to be of a leading and challenging nature- 2006
David Syme Research Prize for - original research making an important contribution to the fields of Biology, Chemistry, Geology or Physics - by an Australian researcher (awarded 16 May 2007) 2006
Lindemann Fellowship of the English-Speaking Union of the Commonwealth 1991-1992
St Anne's College Drapers' Company Junior Research Fellowship October 1989-1991
Shell Australia Postgraduate Scholarship for Science and Engineering 1985-88
Lady James Prize (Physical Science, UWA) 1983 (shared) Digby-Fitzhardinge Memorial Prize for Physics (UWA) 1982.
Citations - for one of the best five works done at one of the APS sectors - for 2000, in independent experiments on beamlines 1-ID and 12. Citation (APS Forefront 2001) for outstanding research of the past year (2001) for beamline 2-ID-B, Paterson et al., pp178-180

You may have seen me...

In Perth, U.W.A., Western Australia; in the Clarendon Laboratory or Nuclear Physics Building, Oxford, U.K.; at the Quantum Metrology Division & EBIT Group, Atomic Physics Division, N.I.S.T, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA; GSI, Darmstadt, Germany; LBL, Berkeley, California; APS, Chicago; ANBF, Tsukuba, Japan; ESRF, France...

Key conferences...

Chair, ISRP 2009, Melbourne. International Symposium on Radiation Physics
Chair, Forum on Future Directions in Atomic and Condensed Matter Science, Melbourne 2008
Australian X-ray Analytical Association Conference 2008 Programme Committee
Scientific Program Chair, X2005, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 2005 & Proceedings Editor
International Scientific Advisory Committee, XVUV
International Scientific Advisory Committee, X-ray and Inner Shell Processes

Research Fields: Theory, Experiment and Applications

How do X-rays get absorbed, diffract and scatter from matter?
Can we predict the shape of X-ray Absorption Fine Structure?
Do we understand the fundamental forces between charges?

QED

Relativistic Atomic Theory

X-ray Optics and Atomic Physics: Theory and Experiment

XAFS and Condensed Matter Science: Theory and Experiment

X-ray Extended Range Technique for high-accuracy absorption and scattering measurement

Non-destructive Measurement of Nanoroughness

Measurement and Theory of the Inelastic Mean Free Path of the Electron

Theoretical and Laboratory Astrophysics

Biophysics: Biomedical and Chemical Applications

Plasma Physics

Powder Diffraction and X-ray Crystallography

Applications to Earth Sciences, Biology and Organometallics

QED:

Quantum Electro-dynamics (QED) explains how light interacts with matter and is fundamental to most of the technology we use today.

Quantum Electrodynamics is one of the two best-tested theories in physics and science. It is the most trusted example of a Quantum Field Theory in practice. Yet certain problems in its formulation lead people like Roger Penrose to assume that there are fundamental flaws in the theory. Our experiments at the cutting edge may reveal such an inadequacy, by being more sensitive to important terms and interactions than other available tests. Coming experiments can test alternate competing theories. QED is the primary explanation of the interaction of light and charge, and is fundamental to much of the physics which we assume and rely on in the world today. Experimental and theoretical developments in 1998 - 2015 are questioning the current theoretical approaches. Can hints of string theory, extra dimensions, or other formulations be found in atoms? Are our approaches to field theory and QED complete? Are our treatments of correlation and correlated QED complete?

In particular, our recent (2012) discrepancy and pattern is reported in Phys Rev Lett and Physics Today and appears to be a significant (over 5 s.e.) discrepancy from latest theory. This anomaly has been strengthened in 2014 publications with much media comment. A key dilemma is to let the experimental data and uncertainties speak for themselves without forcing them to agree with preconceptions; and indeed to allow for and uncover systematic effects as far as possible. The investigation of the discrepancy for muonic hydrogen reported in Nature is another discrepancy in fundamental physics which will not go away after almost 5 years of intensive research. People like Ulrich Jentshura have commented that, as it stands, it is a critical test of physics beyond the Standard Model, despite or because it is a low interaction energies.

We note that our analysis in general uses a minimalist least-squares fitting procedure and to first order assumes uncertainties presented in the past literature are valid. This is fact raises the questions we have observed. It is then the pattern of discrepancies which begins to speak for itself.

I have pursued precision tests of Quantum Electrodynamics in atomic systems, and in a series of international collaborations have produced several high-precision measurements of QED in the medium-to-high Z regime. I have been involved in the development of X-ray specroscopy on the novel Electron Beam Ion Trap devices, in collaborations primarily at NIST. I have worked on few-electron physics for 30 years and have extensive experience with investigations at accelerators in Oxford, GSI, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Argonne. We have performed the most precise measurements of the resonance lines of a helium-like ion in the Z=19-31 range, which allows sensitivity to two-electron QED effects and excited-state QED effects.

See

157. C. T. Chantler, A. T. Payne, M. N. Kinnane, J. D. Gillaspy, L. T. Hudson, L. F. Smale, X-ray measurements in Helium-like Atoms increased discrepancy between experiment and theoretical QED, New Journal of Physics 16 (2014) 123037 - 1 - 15

156. A. T. Payne, C. T. Chantler, M. N. Kinnane, J. D. Gillaspy, L. T. Hudson, L. F. Smale, Helium-like titanium X-ray spectrum as a probe of QED computation, Journal of Physics B47 (2014) 185001-1-8

135. C. T. Chantler, M. N. Kinnane, J. D. Gillaspy, L. T. Hudson, A. T. Payne, L. F. Smale, A. Henins, J. M. Pomeroy, J. N. Tan, J. A. Kimpton, E. Takacs, K. Makonyi, Testing Three-body Quantum Electrodynamics with trapped Ti20+ ions: Evidence for a Z-dependent divergence between experiment and calculation. Phys. Rev. Letts 109 (2012) 153001-1-5

>> Physics Today December Issue!! SK Blau, Search and Discovery, Physics Today, Dec (2012), p22; http://www.physicstoday.org/daily_edition/physics_update/highly_charged_ions_challenge_qed

95. J. D. Gillaspy, C. T. Chantler, D. Patterson, L. T. Hudson, F. G. Serpa, E. Takacs, First measurement of Lyman alpha x-ray lines in hydrogen-like vanadium: results and implications for precision wavelength metrology and tests of QED, J. Phys. B 43 (2010) 074021-1 -9

90. C. T. Chantler, J .M. Laming, J. D. Silver, D. D. Dietrich, P. H. Mokler, E. C. Finch, S. D. Rosner, The Hydrogenic Lamb Shift in Germanium, Ge31+ and fine structure Lamb shift, Phys. Rev. A80 (2009) 022508

88. C. T. Chantler, J. A. Kimpton, Recent developments in X-ray tests of QED, Can. J. Phys. 87 (2009) 763-772

83. C. T. CHANTLER, J. M. LAMING, D. D. DIETRICH, W. A. HALLETT, R. MCDONALD, J. D. SILVER, The Hydrogenic Lamb Shift in Iron, Fe25+ and fine structure, Phys. Rev. A76 (2007) 042116-1-19

57. C. T. Chantler, "Discrepancies In Quantum Electro-Dynamics," Radiation Physics and Chemistry 71 (2004) 607-617

40. C.T. Chantler, D. Paterson, L.T. Hudson, F.G. Serpa, J.D. Gillaspy, E. Takacs, "Absolute measurement of the resonance lines in heliumlike vanadium on an electron-beam ion trap," Phys. Rev. A62 (2000) 042501:1-13

30. E. TAKACS, E. S. MEYER, J. D. GILLASPY, J. R. ROBERTS, C. T. CHANTLER, L. T. HUDSON, R. D. DESLATTES, C. M. BROWN, J. M. LAMING, U. FELDMAN, J. DUBAU, M. K. INAL, Polarization measurements on a magnetic quadrupole line in Ne-like barium, Phys. Rev. A54 (1996) 1342-1350. [first absolute polarization studies performed on an EBIT]

24. S. N. LEA, W. A. HALLETT, A. J. VARNEY, C. T. CHANTLER, P. E. G. BAIRD, J. D. SILVER, A. R. LEE, J. BILLOWES, Intra-cavity laser resonance spectroscopy of hydrogen-like silicon ions, Phys. Lett. A185 (1994) 327-332.

17. H. F. BEYER, K. D. FINLAYSON, D. LIESEN, P. INDELICATO, C. T. CHANTLER, R. D. DESLATTES, J. SCHWEPPE, F. BOSCH, M. JUNG, O. KLEPPER, W. KONIG, R. MOSHAMMER, K. BECKERT, H. EICKHOFF, B. FRANZKE, A. GRUBER, F. NOLDEN, P. SPADTKE, M. STECK, X-ray transitions associated with electron capture into bare dysprosium, J. Phys. B26 (1993) 1557-1567.

12. J. M. LAMING, C. T. CHANTLER, J. D. SILVER, D. D. DIETRICH, E. C. FINCH, P. H. MOKLER, S. D. ROSNER, A Differential Measurement of the Ground State Lamb Shift in Hydrogenic Germanium, Ge31+, NIM B31 (1988) 21-23

Investigation of new structure in atomic systems has continually developed our understanding of physics and quantum phenomena. One of the goals of much current research is to test Quantum Electro-Dynamics (QED) critically in new and important regimes. Some areas of parallel investigations include exotic atoms like muonic hydrogen, muonium, and positronium, and some investigations have involved g-2 experiments in different systems. Most effort has been directed to Lamb shift measurements in hydrogenic and helium-like systems. A significant realisation of recent years is that these complementary endeavours are investigating different fundamental issues and making major contributions to different fields.

Relativistic Atomic Theory:

How can relativistic quantum mechanics predict absorption and scattering coefficients, and are the results accurate?

We have seen major insight from advanced relativistic theory which has resolved some key anomalies in the literature:

Push

Here the atomic scattering factor is given for Uranium at medium X-ray energies (keV). Click the figure for the corresponding attenuation coefficients.

Some of our theoretical developments in the computation of form factors have resulted in significant improvements upon earlier work, which can be tested by suitable experiments. The computations have been confirmed in selected regions. Atomic form factors determine photoelectric cross-sections, elastic and inelastic scattering cross-sections and X-ray (Bragg-Laue) coherent diffraction profiles. Major discrepancies exist between theory and experiment. The Web database has been receiving 20000 hits per month since electronic installation as one of the three major references for atomic form factors and attenuation coefficients. Reliable knowledge of these factors is required for conventional fields such as crystallography and radiography, and also for the new fields of X-ray Anomalous Fine Structure (XAFS) and Multiple-wavelength Anomalous Dispersion (MAD).

It is also interesting to note that our theoretical work in relativistic atomic structure and spectroscopy has led to an investigation of the role of QED (self-energy) in these codes and in the corresponding spectra, linking up to the experimental QED tests:

144. J. A. Lowe, C. T. Chantler, I. P. Grant, Self-energy screening approximations in multi-electron atoms, Rad. Phys. Chem. 85 (2013) 118-123

and investigations of correlation terms:

159. C T Chantler, TVB Nguyen, JA Lowe, IP Grant, Convergence of the Breit interaction in self-consistent and configuration-interaction approaches, Phys Rev A90 (2014) 062504 - 1 - 8.

For significant theoretical advances on the X-ray Characteristic resonance transitions, see:

142. C. T. Chantler, J. A. Lowe, I. P. Grant, High-accuracy reconstruction of titanium x-ray photoemission spectra, including relative intensities, asymmetry and satellites, and ab initio determination of shake magnitudes for transition metals, J. Phys. B 46 (2012) 015002

>> http://iopscience.iop.org/0953-4075 citing C. T. Chantler, J. A. Lowe, I. P. Grant, J. Phys. B 46 (2012) 015002

121. C. T. Chantler, J. A. Lowe, I. P. Grant, Anomalous satellite intensity discrepancy in copper X-ray lines Phys. Rev. A85 (2012) 032513.

111. C. T. Chantler, J. A. Lowe, I. P. Grant, Multiconfiguration Dirac Fock calculations in open shell atoms: Convergence methods and satellite spectra of copper K a photoemission spectrum, Phys. Rev. A82 (2010) 052505-1-4

110. J. A. Lowe, C. T. Chantler, I. P. Grant, A new approach to relativistic multi-configuration quantum mechanics for complex systems / Theoretical determination of characteristic X-ray lines and the titanium K a spectrum, Physics Letts A374 (2010) 4756

91. C. T. Chantler, A. L. C. Hayward, I. P. Grant, Theoretical determination of characteristic X-ray lines and the copper K alpha spectrum, Phys. Rev. Letts 103 (2009) 123002-1-4 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.123002

For novel investigations into astrophysical and related transitions in the optical and UV spectrum, see:

155. T. V. B. Nguyen, C. T. Chantler, J. A. Lowe, I. P. Grant, Advanced ab initio relativistic calculations of transition probabilities for some OI and OIII emission lines, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 440 (2014) 3439-3443

148. C. T. Chantler, T. V. B. Nguyen, J. A. Lowe, I. P. Grant, Relativistic Calculation of Transition Probabilities for 557.7nm and 297.2nm Emission Lines in Oxygen, The Astrophysical Journal 769 (2013) 84-1-5

For experimental investigation and characterisation, see:

160. L. F. Smale, C. T. Chantler, J. A. Kimpton, Methodology for the Characterisation of Characteristic Spectral Profiles, Applied to chromium K beta, X-ray Spectrometry 54 (2015) 54-62.

150. A J Illig, C T Chantler, A T Payne, Voigt Profile Characterisation of Copper K alpha, Journal of Physics B46 Sept (2013) 235001-1-11

>>> Laboratory Highlight invited. A J Illig, C T Chantler, A T Payne, Determination of the 2p satellite profile through an improved characterization of copper K alpha, citing A J Illig, C T Chantler, A T Payne, Voigt Profile Characterisation of Copper K alpha, Journal of Physics B46 Sept (2013) 235001-1-11, http://m.iopscience.iop.org/0953-4075/labtalk-article/56166

149. C. T. Chantler, L. F. Smale, J. A. Kimpton, D. N. Crosby, M. N. Kinnane, A. J. Illig, Characterization of Titanium K beta spectral profile, J Phys B46(2013)145601-1-10

145. L. F. Smale, C. T. Chantler, J. A. Kimpton, D. N. Crosby, M. N. Kinnane, Characterization of K beta spectral profile for vanadium, Phys. Rev. A87 (2013) 022512-1-7

67. C. T. Chantler, M. N. Kinnane, C.-H. Su, J. A. Kimpton, " Characterisation of K alpha spectral profiles for Vanadium, and development of satellite structure for Z=21 to Z=25, " Phys. Rev. A73 (2006) 012508:1-16

For the major US Tabulations of atomic form factors and attenuation, see:

39. C. T. Chantler, Detailed new tabulation of atomic form factors and attenuation coefficients in the near-edge soft X-ray regime (Z=30-36, Z=60-89, E=0.1 keV 8 keV), addressing convergence issues of earlier work, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data. 29(4) (2000) 597-1056.

26. C. T. Chantler, Theoretical form factor, attenuation and scattering tabulation for Z=1-92 from E=1-10 eV to E=0.4-1.0 MeV, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 24 (1995), 71-643.

X-ray Optics and Experimental Atomic Physics: Theory and Experiment

Our recent experiments are two orders of magnitude more accurate than earlier work and reveal new physics, new processes and new applications. If we understand how light interacts with matter, we can use this insight in further applications.

The way that X-rays interact with matter should be well understood. However, deviations between latest theoretical computations lies at the 10% level over much of the energy ranges, for most elements. Even for the most investigated elements such as Si, Cu, Ag, Au, the few experiments which claim 1% precision show variation of 5-30%. We are addressing this with synchrotron experiments and with state-of-the-art facilities. Recent results have broken through this barrier to an unprecedented 0.01% precision and 0.02%-0.3% accuracy - an improvement of two orders of magnitude over previous work.

See

149. C. T. Chantler, L. F. Smale, J. A. Kimpton, D. N. Crosby, M. N. Kinnane, A. J. Illig, Characterization of Titanium K beta spectral profile, J Phys B46(2013)145601-1-10

145. L. F. Smale, C. T. Chantler, J. A. Kimpton, D. N. Crosby, M. N. Kinnane, Characterization of K beta spectral profile for vanadium, Phys. Rev. A87 (2013) 022512-1-7

142. C. T. Chantler, J. A. Lowe, I. P. Grant, High-accuracy reconstruction of titanium x-ray photoemission spectra, including relative intensities, asymmetry and satellites, and ab initio determination of shake magnitudes for transition metals, J. Phys. B 46 (2012) 015002

>> http://iopscience.iop.org/0953-4075 citing C. T. Chantler, J. A. Lowe, I. P. Grant, J. Phys. B 46 (2012) 015002

121. C. T. Chantler, J. A. Lowe, I. P. Grant, Anomalous satellite intensity discrepancy in copper X-ray lines Phys. Rev. A85 (2012) 032513.

114. J. A. Lowe, C.T. Chantler, I. P. Grant, Ab initio determination of satellite intensities in the transition metals using a multiconfiguration framework, Phys. Rev. A83 Rapid Communication (2011) 060501(R)-1-4

111. C. T. Chantler, J. A. Lowe, I. P. Grant, Multiconfiguration Dirac Fock calculations in open shell atoms: Convergence methods and satellite spectra of copper K a photoemission spectrum, Phys. Rev. A82 (2010) 052505-1-4

110. J. A. Lowe, C. T. Chantler, I. P. Grant, A new approach to relativistic multi-configuration quantum mechanics for complex systems / Theoretical determination of characteristic X-ray lines and the titanium K a spectrum, Physics Letts A374 (2010) 4756

65. M. D. de Jonge, C. Q. Tran, C. T. Chantler, Z. Barnea, B. B. Dhal, D. J. Cookson, W.-K. Lee, A. Mashayekhiand, "Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form-factor of molybdenum over the energy range of 13.5 keV -41.5 keV," Phys. Rev. A 71 , 032702:1-16 (2005) [100 times more accurate than all earlier literature, giving proof-of-principle of XERT]

37. C. T. CHANTLER, Z. BARNEA, C. Q. TRAN, J. TILLER, D. PATERSON, Precision X-ray optics for fundamental interactions in atomic physics, resolving discrepancies in the X-ray regime, Optical & Quantum Electronics 31 (1999) 495-505.

2. C. T. Chantler, "Towards improved form factor tables", pp 61-78, Invited review chapter in Resonant Anomalous X-Ray Scattering. Theory and Applications, G. Materlik, K. Fischer, C.J. Sparks, eds, (Elsevier, North-Holland, 1994).

XAFS and Condensed Matter Science: Theory and Experiment

X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) is a complex structure seen in the absorption coefficient just above the absorption edge, where an incoming X-ray has enough energy to ionise an electron from a particular bound state. The oscillations seen are particularly due to an interference effect between the emitted photoelectron and its own reflected wave. This signature allows many investigations of local structural information for crystallographers, chemists, medical scientists and mining / engineering investigations.

Medical and biomedical research depends upon linking structure to function, and is dominated by the dynamics of active centres. This lies at the centre of XAFS research whenever the key catalytic agent is metallic of has an atomic number above 10.

Some third or more of Australian synchrotron research uses XAFS (and the related technique called XANES) to indentify band distances, chemical valence, nearest neighbour coordination and geometry, and local structure.

Our new experimental techniques allow XAFS determination with an accuracy increased by up to two orders of magnitude, which in turn challenges all available theory and modelling. Our analytical work puts these discrepancies on a firm foundation, and our theoretical development holds promise to develop new tools and methods of insightful analysis.

With Joel Brugger, Chris Ryan, Don MacNaughton, Stephen Best and others, we received a large LIEF grant to develop these resources for high-accuracy experiments and extreme chemistry and earth science investigations.

See

109. C .T. Chantler, J. D. Bourke, X-ray Spectroscopic Measurement of the Photoelectron Inelastic Mean Free Paths in Molybdenum, Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 1 (2010) 2422-2427

101. J. D. Bourke, C. T. Chantler, Finite difference method calculations of long-range X-ray absorption fine structure for copper over k ~ 20 A-1, NIM A619 (2010) 33-36 [Extension of FDM into far XERT regime (k>> 20)]

77. J. D. BOURKE, C. T. CHANTLER, C. WITTE, Finite Difference Method Calculations of X-ray Absorption Fine Structure for Copper, Physics Letters A, 360 (2007), 702-706 [First demonstration that Finite Difference Method theory can be applied successfully in the XAFS regime.]

71. C. WITTE, C.T. CHANTLER, E.C. COSGRIFF, C.Q. TRAN, Atomic cluster calculation of the X-ray near-edge absorption of copper, Radiation Physics & Chemistry 75 (2006) 1582-1585 [Proof of concept for the Finite Difference Method for XANES in copper]

66. E. Cosgriff, C. T. Chantler, C. Witte, L. Smale, C. Q. Tran, " Atomic cluster-structure calculations of the X-ray near-edge absorption of silver," Phys. Letts A343 (2005) 174-180 [First test of Finite Difference Methods applied to high-accuracy data sets.]

X-ray Extended Range Technique for high-accuracy absorption and scattering measurement:

The experimental measurements and high accuracy have a long history enmeshed with developments of synchrotron diagnostics and calibration systems. Selected highlights follow:

98. J. L. Glover, C. T. Chantler, Z. Barnea, N. A. Rae, C. Q. Tran, Measurement of the X-ray mass-attenuation coefficients of gold, derived quantities between 14 keV and 21 keV and determination of the bond lengths of gold, J. Phys. B 43 (2010) 085001-1-15

97. M. T. Islam, N. A. Rae, J. L. Glover, Z. Barnea, M. D. de Jonge, C. Q. Tran, J. Wang, and C. T. Chantler, Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold in the 38 keV - 50 keV energy range, Phys. Rev. A 81 (2010) 022903-1-9

96. N. A. Rae, C. T. Chantler, Z. Barnea, M. D. de Jonge, C. Q. Tran, J. R. Hester, X-ray mass attenuation coefficients and imaginary components of the atomic form-factor of zinc over the energy range of 7.2 keV - 15.2 keV, Phys. Rev. A 81 (2010) 022904-1-10

94. C. T. Chantler, C. Q. Tran, Z. Barnea, X-ray Absorption Fine Structure for Single Crystals, J. Appl. Cryst. 43 (2010) 64-69

86. C. T. Chantler, Development and Applications of Accurate Measurement of Absorption; The X-ray Extended Range Technique for high accuracy absolute XAFS by transmission and fluorescence, European Physical Journal ST 169 (2009) 147-153

85. J. L. Glover, C. T .Chantler, Z. Barnea, N. A. Rae, C. Q. Tran, D. C. Creagh, D. Paterson, B. B. Dhal, High-accuracy measurements of the X-ray mass-attenuation coefficient and imaginary component of the form factor of copper, Phys. Rev. A78 (2008) 052902

82. J. L. GLOVER, C. T. CHANTLER, The Analysis of X-ray Absorption Fine Structure: Beam-line independent interpretation, Meas. Sci. Tech. 18 (2007) 2916-2920 [How XERT resolves major anomalies in current research.]

78. M. D. DE JONGE, C. Q. TRAN, C. T. CHANTLER, Z. BARNEA, B. B. DHAL, D. PATTERSON, E. P. KANTER, S. H. SOUTHWORTH, L. YOUNG, M. A. BENO, J. A. LINTON, G. JENNINGS, Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form-factor of tin over the energy range of 29 keV 60 keV, Phys. Rev. A75 (2007) 032702-1-14

63. C. Q. Tran, C. T. Chantler, Z. Barnea, M. D. de Jonge, B. B. Dhal, C. T. Y. Chung, D. Paterson and J. Wang, "Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient of silver using the x-ray extended range technique," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38 (2005) 89-107

55. Martin D. de Jonge, Zwi Barnea, and Christopher T. Chantler, "X-ray bandwidth: Determination by on-edge absorption and effect on various absorption experiments," Phys. Rev. A 69 (2004) 022717-1 -12.

54. C. Q. Tran, C. T. Chantler, Z. Barnea, "X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficient of Silicon: Theory versus Experiment," Physical Review Letts 90 (2003) 257401-1-4 [resolution of theoretical and experimental discrepancies, a new experimental technique]

49. C. Q. TRAN, Z. BARNEA, M. DE JONGE, B. B. DHAL, D. PATERSON, D. COOKSON, C. T. CHANTLER, Quantitative Determination of Major Systematics in Synchrotron X-Ray Experiments: Seeing Through Harmonic Components, X-ray Spectrometry 32 (2003) 69-74

48. C. T. Chantler, C.Q. Tran, Z. Barnea, D. Paterson, D. Cookson and D.X. Balaic, Precision Measurement of the X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficient of Copper Using 8.85 keV - 20 keV Synchrotron Radiation, Phys. Rev. A64 (2001) 062506-1 - 15.

44. C. T. Chantler, C.Q. Tran, D. Paterson, D. Cookson and Z. Barnea, "X-ray Extended-Range Technique for Precision Measurement of the X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficient and Im(f) for Copper Using Synchrotron Radiation," Phys. Letts A286 (2001) 338-346.

43. C. T. CHANTLER, C. Q. TRAN, D. PATERSON, Z. BARNEA, D. J. COOKSON, Direct Observation of Scattering Contribution in X-ray Attenuation Measurement, and evidence for Rayleigh scattering from copper samples rather than thermal-diffuse or Bragg-Laue scattering, Rad. Phys. Chem. 61 (2001) 347-350.

42. C. T. Chantler, C. Q. Tran, D. Paterson, D. J. Cookson, Z. Barnea, "Monitoring fluctuations at a synchrotron beam-line using matched ion chambers: 2. Isolation of component noise sources, and application to attenuation measurements showing increased precision by two orders of magnitude", X-ray Spectrometry 29 (2000) 459-466

41. C.T. Chantler, C.Q. Tran, D. Paterson, Z. Barnea, and D.J. Cookson, "Monitoring fluctuations at a synchrotron beam-line using matched ion chambers: 1. Modelling, data collection, and deduction of simple measures of association", X-ray Spectrometry 29 (2000) 449-458

Non-destructive Measurement of Nanoroughness

This is a new field which we are beginning to explore. The first-fruits are:

89. J. L. Glover, C. T. Chantler, M. D. de Jonge, Nano-roughness in gold revealed from X-ray signature, Phys. Lett. A373 (2009) 1177-1180

Band Theory, Cluster Theory, FDMX: Measurement and Theory of the Inelastic Mean Free Path of the Electron:

Another new field, because both theory and experiment are largely intractable for low energy electrons. Our experimental and theoretical approaches show great promise and for the first time can define and inform new experimental and theoretical methods for EELS and LEED, for ELFs and IMFPs:

120. J. D. Bourke, C. T. Chantler, Electron Energy Loss Spectra and Overestimation of Inelastic Mean Free Paths in Many- Pole models, J. Phys. Chem A116, Mar. (2012) 3202-3205

109. C .T. Chantler, J. D. Bourke, X-ray Spectroscopic Measurement of the Photoelectron Inelastic Mean Free Paths in Molybdenum, Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 1 (2010) 2422-2427

99. J. D. Bourke, C .T. Chantler, Measurements of Electron Inelastic Mean Free Paths in Materials, Phys. Rev. Letters 104 (2010) 206601-1-4

Theoretical and Laboratory Astrophysics

We have been invited to address some critical problems involving anomalies in astrophysical observations and data. Tools to investigate these in laboratory sources or using advanced theory can reveal key pieces of outstanding problems and puzzles.

155. T. V. B. Nguyen, C. T. Chantler, J. A. Lowe, I. P. Grant, Advanced ab initio relativistic calculations of transition probabilities for some OI and OIII emission lines, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 440 (2014) 3439-3443

148. C. T. Chantler, T. V. B. Nguyen, J. A. Lowe, I. P. Grant, Relativistic Calculation of Transition Probabilities for 557.7nm and 297.2nm Emission Lines in Oxygen, The Astrophysical Journal 769 (2013) 84-1-5

Biophysics: Biomedical and Chemical Applications

Accurate theory and experiment crosses boundaries and becomes intrinsically interdisciplinary. While this can be seen in our application in imaging, they are far more significant in spectroscopy, diffraction and XAFS, as these are the dominant techniques used at synchrotrons and ergo have the greatest opportunities. Some highlights of the group activity include:

122. N. Mohammadi, A. Ganesan, C. T. Chantler, F. Wang, Differentiation of ferrocene D_5d and D_5h conformers using IR spectroscopy, Journal of Organometallic Chemistry 713 (2012) 51-59

119. C. T. Chantler, N. A. Rae, M. T. Islam, S. P. Best, J. Yeo, L. F. Smale, J. Hester, N. Mohammadi, F. Wang, Stereochemical analysis of Ferrocene and the uncertainty of fluorescence XAFS data, J Synch. Rad. 19 (2012) 145-158

98. J. L. Glover, C. T. Chantler, Z. Barnea, N. A. Rae, C. Q. Tran, Measurement of the X-ray mass-attenuation coefficients of gold, derived quantities between 14 keV and 21 keV and determination of the bond lengths of gold, J. Phys. B 43 (2010) 085001-1-15

93. C. T. Chantler, Accurate Measurement and Physical Insight: The X-ray Extended Range Technique for fundamental atomic physics, condensed matter research and biological sciences, Rad. Phys. Chem. 79 (2010) 117-123 doi:10.1016/j.radphyschem.2009.07.022

86. C. T. Chantler, Development and Applications of Accurate Measurement of Absorption; The X-ray Extended Range Technique for high accuracy absolute XAFS by transmission and fluorescence, European Physical Journal ST 169 (2009) 147-153

82. J. L. GLOVER, C. T. CHANTLER, The Analysis of X-ray Absorption Fine Structure: Beam-line independent interpretation, Meas. Sci. Tech. 18 (2007) 2916-2920 [How XERT resolves major anomalies in current research.]

31. L. T. HUDSON, R. D. DESLATTES, A. HENINS, C. T. CHANTLER, E. G. KESSLER, J. E. SCHWEPPE, Curved Crystal Spectrometer for Energy Calibration and Spectral Characterization of Mammographic X-ray Sources, Medical Physics 23 (1996) 1659-1670

29. C. T. CHANTLER, R. D. DESLATTES, A. HENINS, L. T. HUDSON, Flat and Curved Crystal Spectrography for Mammographic X-ray Sources, British J. Radiology, 69 (1996) 636-649

14. C. T. CHANTLER, E. N. MASLEN, Charge Transfer and Three-Centre Bonding in Monoprotonated and Diprotonated 2,2-Bipyridylium closo-Decaboron Hydride, Acta Cryst. B45 (1989), 290-297

9. J. L. GLOVER, C. T. CHANTLER, A. V. SOLDATOV, G. SMOLENTSEV, M. C. FEITERS, "Theoretical XANES study of the activated Nickel (t-amylisocyanide) molecule," 625-627, CP882, X-ray Absorption Fine Structure - XAFS13, B. Hedman, P. Pianetta, eds (2007, AIP 978-0-7354-0384-0)

Plasma Physics:

Several of our studies have provided the first absolute polarisation measurement at an EBIT; and investigated key plasma processes and dynamics in highly ionized systems. Plasmas in astrophysical sources, aurorae, accelerators, EBITs and Tokamaks are of extreme interest in interpreting anomalies and dynamics, as well as long-term energy sources. A new EBIT proposal linked to a synchrotron offers the possibility of direct inquiry into laboratory-controlled understanding of dynamic interactions in plasmas.

See

84. C. T. CHANTLER, Charge and State Population in Dilute plasmas from Beam-Foil Spectroscopy, Can. J. Phys. 86 (2008) 331-350

30. E. TAKACS, E. S. MEYER, J. D. GILLASPY, J. R. ROBERTS, C. T. CHANTLER, L. T. HUDSON, R. D. DESLATTES, C. M. BROWN, J. M. LAMING, U. FELDMAN, J. DUBAU, M. K. INAL, Polarization measurements on a magnetic quadrupole line in Ne-like barium, Phys. Rev. A54 (1996) 1342-1350. [first absolute polarization studies performed on an EBIT]

20.C. T. CHANTLER, J.M. LAMING, J.D. SILVER, Beam-gas recoil spectra of highly ionised neon, NIM B73 (1993) 130-134

13. C. T. CHANTLER, J. D. SILVER, X-ray spectra of recoil ions from fast beam interaction with Mg and MgF2 solid targets NIM B31 (1988) 59-69

Powder Diffraction, X-ray Diffraction and X-ray Crystallography:

Powder Diffraction is often required for structural determination of biologically active molecules, viruses, proteins or enzymes as well as for small inorganic molecules, especially where the samples cannot be grown into large crystals.

Standards for powder diffraction are well-known and widely used; though not frequently used in local Australian research. These standards are dominated by pure silicon powder and lanthanum hexaboride powder, which are the two principal lattice (and intensity) standards used in the world today. These standards are maintained by NIST. They determine the lattice parameter of an unknown sample under investigation and are a critical tool in determining the synchrotron beam energy in an experiment. Additionally, they monitor and can reveal several types of systematic errors in typical experiments.

In recent work using the X-ray Extended Range Technique (XERT) we have redetermined the lattice spacing of the second standard (LaB6) compared to the primary standard (Si) and find several standard deviations of discrepancy. This (i) proves that synchrotron techniques can be used to determine such standards and (ii) is the most accurate determination of lattice spacing except for that of silicon itself. This opens up the way for the implementation of new standards and methods of analysis.

See

79. C. T. CHANTLER, N. A. RAE, C. Q. TRAN, Accurate determination and correction of the lattice parameter of LaB6 (standard reference material 660) relative to that of Si (640b), J. Appl. Cryst. 40 (2007) 232-240 [New technique for powder diffraction standards.]

73. N. A. RAE, C. T. CHANTLER, C. Q. TRAN, Z. BARNEA, High-Precision Energy Determination of Synchrotron Radiation From Powder Diffraction and Investigation of Profile Widths, Radiation Physics & Chemistry 75 (2006) 2063-2066 [New technique for energy calibration.]

56. C. T. Chantler C.Q. Tran, D. J. Cookson, "Precise measurement of the lattice spacing of LaB6 standard powder by the x-ray extended range technique using synchrotron radiation," Phys. Rev. A69 (2004) 042101-1 -11.

27. C. T. CHANTLER, R. D. DESLATTES,Systematic Corrections in Bragg X-ray Diffraction of Flat and Curved Crystals, Rev.Sci.Inst. 66 (1995) 5123-5147. [invited review article, many new results for X-ray diffraction theory]

16.C. T. CHANTLER, X-ray Diffraction of Bent Crystals in Bragg Geometry II: Non-ideally Imperfect Crystals, Modelling and Results, J. Appl. Cryst. 25 (1992) 694-713

15.C. T. CHANTLER, X-ray Diffraction of Bent Crystals in Bragg Geometry I: Perfect Crystal Modelling, J. Appl. Cryst. 25 (1992) 674-693

14. C. T. CHANTLER, E. N. MASLEN, Charge Transfer and Three-Centre Bonding in Monoprotonated and Diprotonated 2,2-Bipyridylium closo-Decaboron Hydride, Acta Cryst. B45 (1989), 290-297

Applications to Earth Sciences, Biology and Organometallics:

These issues impact upon X-ray diffraction theory. My diffraction theory is the first dynamical theory for non-ideally imperfect curved crystals (and simpler subclasses) and shows significantly greater agreement for perfect curved crystal profiles than previous work.

The X-ray interaction with photographic emulsions is an interesting application of ideas from basic physics. Active areas of interest and development include ion chamber optimisation, new detector technology, state-of-the-art spectrometry and 2-dimensional (backgammon) proportional counters.

Applications of these ideas have led to new calibration devices for radiography and mammography, now patented in the US as part of the Quantum Metrology Group effort in the Atomic Physics Division at the National Institute for Standards and Technology, USA.

See

46. D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, D. C. Mancini, "Spatial Coherence Measurement of X-ray Undulator Radiation," Opt. Commun. 195, (2001) 79-84

31. L. T. HUDSON, R. D. DESLATTES, A. HENINS, C. T. CHANTLER, E. G. KESSLER, J. E. SCHWEPPE, Curved Crystal Spectrometer for Energy Calibration and Spectral Characterization of Mammographic X-ray Sources, Medical Physics 23 (1996) 1659-1670.

29. C. T. CHANTLER, R. D. DESLATTES, A. HENINS, L. T. HUDSON, Flat and Curved Crystal Spectrography for Mammographic X-ray Sources, British J. Radiology, 69 (1996) 636-649.

9. J. L. GLOVER, C. T. CHANTLER, A. V. SOLDATOV, G. SMOLENTSEV, M. C. FEITERS, "Theoretical XANES study of the activated Nickel (t-amylisocyanide) molecule," 625-627, CP882, X-ray Absorption Fine Structure - XAFS13, B. Hedman, P. Pianetta, eds (2007, AIP 978-0-7354-0384-0)

Chris. Chantler, chantler@unimelb.edu.au
Last modified: November 2015
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